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                                                           Piles (Hemorrhoid)


Hemorrhoid or ‘rectal lump’ literally means “liable to discharge blood”. Normally, the hemorrhoids support the anal canal by acting as a cushion made of arterio-venous channels along with connective tissues, controlling the stool discharge. When they become swollen, they result in piles. If the case is an internal type, then there is a painless discharge of rectal blood, whereas, the external case of piles pose heavy pains in the area of anus. Piles or hemorrhoids affect a fairly large percentage of human population and both the sexes have equal probability of experiencing this condition.


  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Lack of nutrition (insufficient fiber in the diet)
  • Lack of exercise
  • Hereditary
  • Intra –abdominal pressure (straining during passing of stools)
  • Pregnancy (pressure on the abdomen due to the weight of the fetus)
  • Aging
  • Obesity
  • Prolonged sitting posture
  • Hemorrhoidal veins lack valves within them


  • External - this type of piles is present external to the anus, at its distal end. They can result in thrombosis or blood clot and can be painful, swollen along with an itching sensation.
  • Internal – they occur on the inner side of the rectum, not painful. They are categorized into strangulated (if blood supply is cut off) and prolapsed hemorrhoids (distended and pushed to the exterior of the anus).

      Types of internal hemorrhoids include Grade I, II, III and IV, where prolapse is absent in the first grade of internal hemorrhoid.


  • Rectal pain and painful lump in the anus
  • Itching at the anal area
  • Rectal bleeding ( bright red blood in the stool)
  • Thrombosis (blood clotting in the hemorrhoid formed area)
  • Necrosis (premature death of tissues) 


The doctor makes a visual examination of the anus to confirm the presence and type of hemorrhoids. They diagnose and verify the probable cases of polyps, tumors, abscesses and prostate. If needed, a slight sedation is induced to examine the piles, although most of the internal piles do not go together with pain. 


The first kind of treatment suggested by the consultant physician will be to increase the dietary fiber in the food consumed everyday. The level of hydration should be balanced by consuming enough oral fluids. Some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) s may be prescribed as a part of the treatment. Sitz baths that requires the patient to sit in warm water for several times per day may be suggested. Tropical creams and suppositories may be prescribed by the doctor. Other procedures include rubber band ligation, where the blood supply is intervened to wither the hemorrhoid within 5-7 days. Sclerotherapy may be conducted, which is the process of injecting agents such as phenol in the hemorrhoid. Compared to other methods, Stapled hemorrhoidectomy is a less painful disruption of blood flow into the hemorrhoids. Electrocautery, laser, cryosurgery and infrared radiation will be suggested by the doctor according to the condition of the patient


  • Make sure to regularly eat moderate quantities of fiber content, which is found in most of the vegetables and fruits.
  • Sufficient fluid drinking should be practiced everyday.
  • Regular exercises should be made a part of the daily activities, including walking.
  • Reduce straining while passing stools, spending less time in the toilet and avoid reading at that time.


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